Welcome to the News page for the Central Region, which includes the counties of Staffordshire,
Warwickshire, Herefordshire, Cheshire, Gloucestershire, Shropshire, Derbyshire and Worcestershire.
Regional Council Member
Mrs Lucy Thompson
Tel: 01335 360247 Email: TBC
JSS UK Virtual Young Handler 2020. - Class Results
A massive well done to all that entered the Virtual Young Handlers Competition 2020 with JSS UK.
It really was a pleasure to receive the photos, videos, pictures and essays. It makes me incredibly proud and also extremely confident that the future of the Jacob Society is truly in excellent hands.
You have each shown enthusiasm for the task and great showing skills, that many adults would be at a loss to master.
Thank you all for your entries and I am certain that your work efforts here will also be showcased in our next Journal, so look out for that! Especially well done to the Champion Nia Lewis,
I hope you all agree that whilst everyone was amazing she was exceptional !
Junior – 1st Tobias Gunter 2nd Dalton Schaschke 3rd Vincent Gunter
Intermediate – 1st Alice Collett
Junior – 1st Harry Sandall
Intermediate – 1st George Sandall
Junior – 1st Charlie Beatty
Intermediate – 1st Mia Beatty
Senior – 1st Alex Colhoun – Overall Reserve Champion
Intermediate – 1st Matthew Benson 2nd Ella Wilson 3rd Joe Edmondson
Junior – 1st Enid James
Senior – 1st Stephanie Crozier
Junior – 1st Charlotte Jasper
Intermediate – 1st Olivia Martin 2nd William Jasper 3rd Archie Jasper
Senior – 1st Kayleigh Rennie
Southern (and overseas)
Intermediate – 1st Carli Anne Goss
Intermediate – 1st Gwenllian Evans
Senior- 1st Nia Lewis – Overall Champion
JACOB SHEEP SOCIETY
LAMB FLEECE COMPETITION
Open to members from all regions
Saturday 29 August 2020
Free to Enter
entries close Monday 10 August 2020
samples to be received by Saturday 15 August 2020
Rosettes sponsored by
British Wool Marketing Board
Prizes sponsored by Bob & Paula Bramley, Millvale Flock
Judge – Liz Roberts
The Virtual Young Handlers JSS
UK competition has 3 parts; photos, video and a task dependent on age.
The attached will hopefully help give information about the video section and what it requires.
Please remember all regions are invited to be involved. Lets make the most of a non show season !
Have fun !
DEADLINE 9TH AUG 2020
Worcester Sale 2020 Update
Due to low entries the Jacob Sheep Society sale at Worcester scheduled for August 4th has now been CANCELLED
Entries for the Worcester Sale close on Wednesday June 24th.
Late entries will not be accepted.
Because of Covid-19 there will be no pre-sale show or inspections this year and the sale will be subject to whatever Government regulations and restrictions are in place at the time.
Please send your entries in as soon as possible.
VIRTUAL YOUNG HANDLERS SHOW 2020
Whilst we are in lockdown and many shows have had to cancel the society is running a virtual young handlers competition.
Each region will be judged individually, then there will be an overall national championship.
VIRTUAL YOUNG HANDLERS SHOW
Closing date for entries and images in for Judging has extended to 9th August 2020
Results will be issued on 16th August 2020
1. Under 8 years old
2. 8 years to 12 years old
3. 13 years to 18 years old
Champion Young Handler
Reserve Champion Young Handler
For schedule and entry forms please contact Kay Carpenter on firstname.lastname@example.org
FOR A FULL LIST OF CONDITIONS email email@example.com
• Open to any young handler using any registered JSS Member’s Jacob sheep
• Entries limited to 100 on a first come basis
• Winners will be kindly asked to submit a photograph of themselves and sheep with their rosette. Permission will be sought to use photographs for publicity by the JSS.
• Young Handlers will be judged by region, then the Winners from each class in each region will be put forward into an overall Championship and Reserve.
• All adult sheep must be registered with the Jacob Sheep Society
• FOR ALL CLASSES: Three photographs will be required of the Young Handler showing them at any stage of preparing the sheep they intend to show.
• FOR ALL CLASSES: One short video will be required of the Young Handler leading the sheep and then, on standing the sheep up, they must talk about the Jacob breed standards. Maximum time of entire video 6 minutes, no minimum time set.
• FOR CLASSES 1 AND 2: One drawing or model of the ideal Jacob sheep, to be photographed and submitted.
• FOR CLASS 3: Submit an essay (no minimum but maximum words would cover 1 side of A4 in font size 12) detailing either
(i) the most difficult thing you have had to overcome with your sheep or
(ii) your greatest accomplishment with your sheep
VR3C Show Results
It's with thanks to the Royal Three Counties Show and our Jacob Judge John Emberton that we can announce the winning line up for the Virtual Royal Three Counties Show.
Congratulations to the winners and thank you to all those who entered..!
|Class 1 Rams||Place|
|102||L Trumper & Family||1|
|101||L Trumper & Family||2|
|103||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||3|
|110||Jane & Alan Nightingale||6|
|Class 2 Ewes||Place|
|203||The Trumper Family||1|
|202||Bob & Paula Bramley||3|
|201||Bob & Paula Bramley||5|
|Class 3 Shearling Ewes||24 in the class||Place|
|305||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||1|
|302||L Trumper & Family||2|
|306||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||4|
|303||Bob & Paula Bramley||5|
|301||L Trumper & Family||8|
|311||Jane & Alan Nightingale||9|
|Class 4 Ram Lambs||18 in the class||Place|
|408||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||2|
|409||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||3|
|401||Bob & Paula Bramley||4|
|407||Jane & Alan Nightingale||5|
|Class 5 Ewe Lambs||25 in the class||Place|
|509||Bob & Paula Bramley||1|
|502||L Trumper & Family||2|
|510||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||3|
|511||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||4|
|513||Jane & Alan Nightingale||5|
|501||L Trumper & Family||11|
|102||L Trumper & Family||CH|
|101||L Trumper & Family||RES|
|305||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||CH|
|509||Bob & Paula Bramley||RES|
|102||L Trumper & Family||CH|
|305||Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey||RES|
JACOB SHEEP SOCIETY CALENDARS FOR 2021
The Jacob Sheep Society’s new calendar editor is Sarah Weaver who will be receiving and selecting photographs for the 2021 calendar, arranging printing, and posting them out to members in due course. Closing date for the receipt of digital photographs for consideration is July 31st and photographs should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Calendars should be ordered through our merchandising coordinator, Lorna Hendey, via the on-line shop at https://sales.jacobsheepsociety.com
Central Region 2020 Dates
The Central Region has an exciting year ahead in 2020 and I hope as many of you will be able to join us at the events listed below. The Central Region events are open to all JSS members, not just Central Region members, and to anyone who is thinking of starting a flock of Jacobs.
It is a wonderful opportunity to find out more about the breed and to get some advice.
“Due to Covid-19 we have had to cancel the Central Region Open Day, which was to be held on the 17th May. Robin Hill and Kate Phillipson have very kindly agreed to postpone the event until May 2021.”
(by kind invitation of Robin Hill and Kate Phillipson)
Robin and Kate have a flock of 20 breeding ewes. The Open Day will be held at their farm which is near Suckley in Worcester. The morning will start with a farm walk and an opportunity to visit the flock and this year’s crop of lambs. After lunch there will be a demonstration of blade shearing, which is the traditional way of shearing without using electrical clippers. A demonstration of how to make traditional wooden sheep hurdles out of sweet chestnut and willow. An optional activity at the end of day will be a bee keeping demonstration. The application form will be posted on the website at the end of February.
Due to Covid-19 the NSA Sheep Event 2020 at Malvern, which was to have been held on Tuesday 28th July 2020, has been moved to Monday 19th October 2020
19th October 2020 – NSA Event at Malvern
(Central Region representing JSS)
The NSA event at Malvern, which is held biannually is always an interesting day out for sheep breeders. Please remember to come and say hello to members of the Central Region, who will be manning the JSS stand.
Tuesday 4 August 2020 – Worcester Show & Sale – Judge Scott Dalrymple
“Due to Covid-19 it has been decided to postpone the Central Region Flock Competition until 2021”
25/26/27 September 2020 – Flock Competition – Judge James Leonard
Due to Covid-19 it has been decided to cancel this year’s Autumn Meeting and AGM, which was to be held on Sunday 11th October. The event was going to be held at the farm of Tom Lewis and his family but we hope that we will be able to visit their farm in 2021
Sunday 11 October 2020 – Autumn Meeting and AGM
(by kind invitation of Tom Lewis and family)
Tom Lewis has a flock of 27 breeding ewes. The farm is near Whitchurch in Shropshire.
Autumn Meeting & AGM – October 2019
Grove Farm, Droitwich Road,
Feckenham, Redditch B96 6JA
by kind invitation of Terry and Berni Barker
The final event of the year was a truly wonderful visit to the farm of Terry and Berni Barker in Worcestershire on Sunday 13th October.
Both Terry and Berni had worked incredibly hard to provide a fascinating day and under very trying circumstances with nearly three weeks of solid rain preceding the Autumn Meeting.
The day started with a tour of the farm and an opportunity to visit their flock of 50 Jacob ewes, which were looking magnificent and were greatly admired. Terry and Berni had organized various demonstrations which included how to process and clean wool without using chemicals and how to do your own FEC (Faecal Egg Count). They had also organized a scavenger hunt which proved to be great fun.
After lunch there was a fascinating talk by a vet, Dr Sophie Aylett BVSc MRCVS, from Meadow Farm Veterinary Surgeons.
The talk was on the subject of Toxoplasmosis and Enzootic Abortion in Sheep followed by a question and answer session. Sophie gave the most interesting and informative talk. I have to say greatly helped by the fact that Terry had provided a sound system so that everyone to easily hear what she had to say.
Following the talk Hayley Higginson then gave the results and presentations for The Annual Central Region Young Shepherd Competition, which she so efficiently organizes each year.
Results of the Central Region Young Handlers Competition:
Up to 6 years and under:
- Equal – Dalton Schaschke & Toby Gunter
- Isla Beard
- Vinnie Gunter
- equal Bertie Stanley & Iona Stanley
7 to 14 years:
- Isobel Cartwright
- Ruben Beard
- Alice Collett
- Charlotte Cartwright
- Poppy Dixon
15 to 18 years:
- Caitlin Carpenter
- Abbie Higginson
- Tom Lewis
- Ben Clay
The overall champion: Caitlin Carpenter
Reserve champion: Abbie Higginson
Sadly, Caitlin Carpenter was not at the Autumn Meeting to collect her awards as she was busy successfully delivering a heifer calf back at home. There was a special mention for Caitlin Carpenter, Charlotte Cartwright and Abbie Higginson who represented the Jacob Sheep Society at the National Young Stars and who came 3rd. Many congratulations and thanks to all three.
To complete the day the Central Region held their annual AGM.
Our huge thanks to Terry and Berni. It was an exceptional day and we are very grateful to them both.
2020 is already shaping up to be an exciting year for the Central Region. Please do contact me if you have any problems. Although I may not be able to help you personally, I can always find someone to sort our any issues. My contact number is 01335 360247 and email address is email@example.com
Central Region Open Day – Sunday 19th May 2019
Held at The Old Post Office, Moddershall, Stone, Staffordshire ST15 8TG
by kind invitation of Bob and Paula Bramley
The Millvale Flock was founded in 2006 with the purchase of three 2 horned shearling ewes with the intention of keeping the grass under control on their five- acre holding. The flock consists of 10 breeding ewes and is run as a closed flock with three distinct bloodlines.
The current flock includes 7 championship or reserve winning ewes. Rams from Camster, Elmley, Nutwood and Whowells have been influential alongside home bred rams, Millvale Oak, Buccaneer and Willow. At present they have 2 shearling rams, Millvale Dylan and Border Tempest.
The Bramley’s have been showing for about ten years and in 2013 they received their first championship. The Millvale flock has been successful in the show ring and in the Central Region flock competitions.
The Moddershall Valley in Staffordshire is stunningly beautiful and home to Bob and Paula Bramley’s Millvale Jacob flock which was the location for the Central Region Spring Open Day.
About 55 people came and enjoyed the day. The weather was good so everyone gathered around outside pens to hear a talk by Clive Richardson on how to assess and select ram lambs.
The Bramley’s didn’t have many ewe lambs born this year, but they had an abundance of ram lambs so there was plenty of ‘material’ to discuss. Wisely, Clive refused to be drawn on which was the ‘best’ one, but he gave very good advice leaving people with the knowledge to make their own judgements.
Afterwards, there was an opportunity to wander around the smallholding to view the rest of the flock, including two superb shearling rams Border Tempest and home bred Millvale Dylan (pictured below).
Everyone enjoyed an excellent lunch of hot pasties, salads and an amazing selection of puddings.
While everyone was relaxing after the feast, Clive was put to work again! He gave an interesting and often humorous talk on the history of wool and how the English language has evolved around the wool industry. Expressions such as ‘pulling the wool over someone’s eyes’ and ‘being fleeced’.
If you are a new member or simply have never been to an Open Day, please join us in the Autumn at Terry and Berni Barker’s farm near Redditch (date to be announced soon). The Open Days are a wonderful opportunity to meet people and learn from the experts. You will be made to feel very welcome.
Reflecting on the very busy year that the Central Region has had in 2018, I was struck by how fortunate I am to have such a supportive and proactive committee by my side.
Not only do I have the support of the committee members, but their other halves are always ready to add their huge contribution.
This year at the Royal Three Counties Show, the organizers decided to introduce a new feature for the visitors called. “Farming Heros”. They were looking for exhibitors to provide impromptu talks about their animals and answer questions from the public. Lorna Hendey organized the JSS contribution to this new venture. John Emberton, Gareth Jones and Lyndon Trumper hosted a day each.
Jean Simmons, John Emberton, Mark and Margie Rushbrooke organized the JSS stand at Malvern on the 27th July. Stan Taylor brought along a very fine ram and Richard Chapman a very attractive ewe with a pair of crossbred lambs at foot, which created much discussion and interest. Various members of the Central Region committee manned the stand throughout the actual day and it attracted a great deal of interest from members of the public.
The next big event for the Central Region was the Show & Sale held at Worcester on the 7th August. I would like to thank John Emberton and Jean Simmons who helped with the preparation of the Sale and the running of the Show. Gareth Jones judged the Show with great efficiency. Prices for shearling ewes were on average higher than last year, which was remarkable considering the extremely testing time sheep farmers have had to endure with a harsh winter followed by a shortage of grass due to the extreme weather conditions.
In September the Central Region had their biannual Flock Competition with Barbara Webster and Jennifer Milton agreeing to judge. They travelled considerable distances visiting 17 flocks which was a marathon/endurance test, having to deal with endless road works which seem to bedevil the Central Region. Both Barbara and Jennifer were incredibly generous with their time. Best small flock was won by Bob and Paula Bramley; best large flock Jerry Strong and Lorna Hendey; best group of ewe lambs David and Lesley Partridge; best 4 horn ram Stan Taylor; best 2 horn ram Jerry Strong and Lorna Hendey and best ram lamb Jerry Strong and Lorna Hendey. Overall Champion went to Jerry Strong and Lorna Hendey.
The last event of the year was a truly wonderful visit to the farm of Jonathan and Annabelle Crump in Gloucestershire, which is situated on the Cotswold escarpment overlooking the Severn Vale. The Burford flock of Jacobs was established 40 years ago and the Crumps have their wool processed to produce blankets, shawls and scarves. The farm has a herd of Gloucesters, with 25 milking cows producing delicious Double and Single Gloucester cheeses. Gloucesters were very close to extinction in the 1970s so it was wonderful to see these beautiful animals in such an idyllic setting. Tamworth and Gloucester Old Spot pigs with two litters of piglets were a great attraction. After a spectacular tractor and trailer ride, there was a fascinating visit to the cheese dairy. 60 of us then had lunch, which included the Crumps delicious ham and cheese. It was a very special and magical day. At the end of the day we had the AGM and the results and presentations for the Flock Competition. Hayley Higginson then gave the results and presentations for The Annual Young Shepherd Competition, which she so efficiently organizes each year.
Results of the Central Region Young Handlers Competition:
Up to 12 years:
1. Charlotte Cartwright
2. equal – Tobias Austin Gunter & Ruben Beard
3. equal – Bertie Stanley & Isla Beard
4. equal – Rory Dumbleton & Dalton Schaschke
Special mention – Vincent Gunter
1. Isobel Cartwright
2. Leah Dixon
3. Poppy Dixon
4. Charlie Dumbleton
1. Tom Lewis
2. Abbie Higginson
3. Caitlin Carpenter
4. Equal – Seren Carpenter & Will Bloor
The overall champion: Tom Lewis
Reserve champion: Abbie Higginson.
2018 Flock Competition Results
Class 1 - Best Small Flock:
1st – Robert & Paula Bramley
2nd – Sally Brothwell
3rd – Sean Kirby
Class 2 - Best Large Flock:
1st - Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey
2nd - David & Lesley Partridge
3rd - Robin Hill
Class 3 – Group of Ewe Lambs:
1st – David & Lesley Partridge
2nd - Robert & Paula Bramley
3rd – Ridout & Higginson
Class 4 - Best 4 horn ram:
1st - Stanley Taylor
2nd - David & Lesley Partridge
3rd – David & Lesley Partridge
Class 4 – Best 2 horn Ram:
1st - Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey
2nd - Sally Brothwell
3rd - Tom Lewis
Class 5 – Best Ram Lamb:
1st - Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey
2nd - Terry & Berni Barker
3rd - Ridout & Higginson
The Anne Rowberry Salver for the best 4 horn flock: David & Lesley Partridge
The Dixon Trophy for the best 2 horn flock: Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey
The Bentley Trophy for the best 4 horn male: Stanley Taylor
The Homelea Trophy for the best 2 horn male: Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey
The Nutwood Trophy for the best group of ewe lambs: David & Lesley Partridge
The Culland Trophy for the best ram lamb: Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey
Overall Champion Flock: Jerry Strong & Lorna Hendey
Jacob Sheep Society
Central Region Autumn Meeting
Sunday 7th October 2018 – 11.00am
Was held at, Standish Park Farm, Stonehouse,
Gloucestershire, GL10 3DG
by kind invitation of Jonathan and Annabelle Crump
Standish Park Farm is a tenanted 300 acre grassland farm on the Cotswold escarpment overlooking the Severn Vale. The Burford flock of Jacobs was established 40 years ago. It originates from one ewe and currently has 30 ewes plus followers.
For a number of years the Crumps have had their wool processed to produce blankets, shawls and scarves. Other sheep on the farm include 150 Lleyns and smaller numbers of Cotswold, Kerry Hill and Olla (their son aged 9) has a flock of Shetlands.
The farm also has a herd of about 75 Gloucesters, with 25 milking cows producing Double and Single Gloucester cheese. They also have Tamworth and Gloucester Old Spot pigs and a variety of rare breed poultry.
18th July 2018 - NSA Event
The JSS had a stand at this years National Sheep Association Event at the Royal Three Counties Showground.
The stand looked great and was well manned by JSS volenteers on the day.
Sunday 20 May 2018
The first event of 2018 held by the Central Region was the very successful day spent on the farm of Sean and Kay Carpenter on Sunday 20 May.
We had a great opportunity to see their Lickhill pedigree Jacob flock and also their daughter’s Serenity pedigree flock. We also had an opportunity to see their pedigree Texels, pedigree North Country Cheviots and a commercial flock of Mules. They also have a herd of pedigree South Devon cattle and some prime stock cattle. We all then had lunch and we were able to indulge in the Carpenter’s delicious own pork, which they had generously donated. This was followed by equally delicious puddings all donated from the Central Region Committee.
After lunch Clive Roads, the livestock auctioneer predominantly based at Worcester, very kindly gave a talk on “how to sell your sheep to advantage”. After this fascinating talk, Clive answered a whole range of questions, which then led onto a very interesting discussion.
We are hugely grateful to Clive for giving up a Sunday afternoon and immensely grateful to the Carpenter’s for all their hard work in putting on such a great day.
The final event in the calendar of the Central Region in 2017 was the Autumn Meeting held on Sunday 15th October at the new home of David and Lesley Partridge. It was a wonderful autumn day with the sun shining on the beautiful Bentley flock. The day began with a Judges seminar held by the Field Officer, Gordon Conner. Following the seminar Gordon gave a talk on 4-horned Jacob sheep. There were a number of new members at the Autumn Meeting who had the opportunity to ask questions and had found the whole discussion very helpful and informative.
Jacqueline Emberton had generously offered to produce a wool craft display and, together with Kay Dalloway, arranged a very colourful and interesting exhibition. We are very grateful to Jacqueline for organizing the display.
Another interesting attraction was the fleece competition. There was a good number of entries most of which were of a very high standard. Lesley kindly agreed to judge and the winning fleece belonged to Jonathan Crump.
In the afternoon there was a moment of celebration within the Central Region, when we marked the 80th birthday of Jean Blacknell and the 90th birthdays of Stan and Beryl Taylor. This was then followed by the presentation of the Central Region Young Handler’s Trophies by Hayley Higginson.
The results of the Young Handler’s Competition are as follows:
Up to 12 years:
- Leah Dixon
- Charlie Dumbleton
- Isobel & Charlotte Cartwright
- Poppy Dixon
- Thomas Partridge
- Abbie Higginson
- Benjamin Clay
- Caitlin Carpenter
- Will Bloor
- Seren Carpenter
- Tom Lewis
- Olivia Cartwright
Overall Champion: Abbie Higginson
Reserve Champsion: Seren Carpenter
Many congratulations to Abbie and Seren and for all those who competed. There is a great deal of talent exhibited in these young shepherds.
The day ended with the region’s AGM. A huge thank you to David, Lesley Partridge and their family for all their hard work in making the day such a success.
In October we heard the sad news of the death of Beryl Taylor. Beryl was such an integral part of the Central Region and a much loved member of the Society. We will all miss her tremendously.
This year the Central Region will be representing the Jacob Sheep Society at Malvern at the NSA event to be held on the 18th July. Please do come and support this event. This year’s Show & Sale will be held at Worcester on Tuesday 7th August and Gareth Jones has kindly agreed to be the Judge. In October we will be holding our bi-annual Flock Competition. Other events have yet to be finalized so please do check our website.
Once again, I would like to take this opportunity to thank each member of the Central Region Committee. I am extremely fortunate to have such wonderful support. For all those Central Region members, please do contact me if there is anything that I can do to help. I am always pleased to hear from you.
Report by Howard Walsh
The male and overall champion made the top price of 1,650gns in the Jacob Sheep Society’s central region show and sale in Worcester on Tuesday.
All the top prices came for two-horned sheep and while the day’s ceiling bid fell short of last year, some of the section averages were up.
Sale leader was the home-bred January 2016 born ram Lickhill I’m Batman from Stourport-on- Severn breeders Mr and Mrs S. Carpenter. Having been reserve breed champion at this year’s Three Counties – as its’ sire, ‘Beam Me Up Scottie’, was in 2015 – it was sold to B.D. Coe, Harleston, Norfolk.
Second top at 1,200gns was a shearling ram from the Trumper Family, Abergavenny. By Border Windrush out of a Blackbrook ewe, it sold to Messrs Morrish, North Breazle, Okehampton.
Also by Windrush was the reserve overall champion, a shearling ewe from Rhodri Jones, Builth Wells. Born February 2016 and out of a Nettlebed ewe, it went to G. and S. Wood, Scales, Ulverston, at 1,020gns.
Ram lambs topped at 900gns for Border Gambler from Clive Richardson, Ulverston. By his Border Viscount II and out of a home-bred ewe, it sold to Linda Wilson, Aspatria, Wigton, while a ram lamb from the furthest travelled vendor – Adam Christie, Huntly, Aberdeen – made 800gns. Adamski Revel is by Dunmor Antonio.
The dearest ewe lamb at 540gns was a Gobaith Star sired entry from Lesley Partridge, Droitwich. It was bought by Messrs Freshwater, Bicester. The first prize ewe lamb from Jerry Strong and Lorna Hendy, Pershore, was by Nutwood Warrior out of a home-bred Elmley dam and sold at 450gns.
4 flock ewes £181.12 (last year £143.50); 18 shearling ewes £240.33 (£189.37); 36 ewe lambs £195.41 (£200.25); 10 shearling rams £473.55 (£374.42); 21 ram lambs £332.50 £500.18).